The CJEU last week held in C-177/22 JA v Wurth Automotive. The case concerns the consumer title of Brussels Ia, in particular a refinement of the CJEU C-630/17 Milivojević and C-28/18 Petruchová case-law (involvement of people with a background in the sector), C-498/16 Schrems (evolvement of use from non-professional to professional or the other way around) and CJEU C‑464/01 Gruber criteria (dual (non-)professional use).
Applicant in the main proceedings, whose partner is a car dealer and managing director of an online platform for the sale of motor vehicles, was mentioned on the homepage of that platform as the graphic and web designer, without actually having carried out that activity at the time of the facts in the main proceedings. At the request of the applicant in the main proceedings, the partner did some research and contacted the defendant in the main proceedings from his professional email address, in which he indicated a price offer for the purchase of a vehicle. It was stated in that email that the contract of sale was to be concluded on behalf of the applicant in the main proceedings, however a little while after the purchase the partner enquired (but was rebuffed) about the possibility to indicate the VAT amount of the invoice (typically only of interest to business buyers).
Firstly, in applying the consumer title, must account be taken of current and future purposes of the conclusion of that contract, and of the nature of the activity pursued by that person as an employed or self-employed person? As for the latter, the CJEU answer  is clearly ‘no’, with reference to Roi Land Investments. As for the former, whether the purpose for the use is current or planned in the future, per Milivojević [88-89], is held by the CJEU not to be of relevance. I would personally add to both Milivojević and Wurth Automotive that any such future use must have been somehow signalled to the business. While the CJEU in Schrems confirmed the possibility to lose the consumer status as a result of subsequent professional use, it has not held (and in my view ought not to) that an initial professional use later changed to non-professional use, may belatedly trigger the consumer section (it has of course supported the later ‘internationalisation’ of the contract per Commerzbank).
Next, what is the burden of proof on whom, and what needs to be proven, when a good or service has been procured for dual professional and non-professional use. Here, the CJEU  ff confirms that first of all the professional use or not of the good or service needs to be established on the basis of the objective elements of the file. Only if “that evidence is not sufficient, that court may also determine whether the supposed customer had in fact, by his or her own conduct with respect to the other party, given the latter the impression that he or she was acting for business purposes, such that the other party could legitimately have been unaware of the non-professional purpose of the transaction at issue” .
 “the impression created by the conduct of the person claiming the status of ‘consumer’….on the part of the other contracting party, may be taken into account to establish whether that person should be afforded the procedural protection laid down in Section 4 of that regulation.”
In the case at issue,
 inaction following the presentation of a contract identifying the buyer as a trader, can constitute evidence (but not of singlehandedly determinative value) that the applicant in the main proceedings could have created, on the part of the defendant in the main proceedings, the impression that she was acting for professional purposes;
 ditto the sale of the vehicle shortly after the conclusion of the contract and  the potential making of a profit, albeit that the latter would in the view of the CJEU ordinarily not be of great impact.
The CJEU finally is not prepared (despite a self-confessed  in Wurth Automotive] potential to read same in CJEU Gruber) to read a benefit of the doubt, in inconclusive cases, to the benefit of the alleged consumer, leaving that with reference to CJEU TOTO to national procedural law. Here I think the Court could have held against such benefit on the basis of Brussels Ia itself.
EU private International Law, 3rd ed. 2021, 2.231 ff.